This work offers a hypothesis on the history
of the ancient «Rus», which is seen as a military and trading body, a heir
of the syncretistic Jewish-Hellenic religious brotherhoods that formed
the military and administrative elite of the Bosporian kingdom. Its name,
the «Rus», has originated from the Hebrew
word « ,»
applied to the Hellenized Jews since the time of
The «Rus» has founded the so called «Russian
Kaganat» in Tmutarakan on the Taman peninsula. Its multicentury activity
on trading routes of the Eastern Europe has enhanced the economical, cultural,
and political conditions for the origin of the Kievan state. Having organized
the new Slavic state, the Rus - «»
(Russia) became its elite.
This hypothesis has the strong points of both
the «Norman» and «Slavic» theories, is supported by the archaeological
data, historical documents and toponymy, It allows to explain:
1. The origin of the term «Ros - Rus - Russia».
2. The constant contrasting of the Rus and
Slavs in all the written sources
till the XI c.
3. The relationship between the terms: «Varangian»
4. The most ancient mentions of the «Rus»
near the Black Sea.
5. A «squad-like» character of the Kievan
6. The vast experience of the Rus in seafaring
and international trade.
7. Some obscure points in the ancient documents
and Russian folklore
(e. g. the idols of the «Vladimir's pantheon», the names of «Safed»
or «Israi» given to the Dniper, and so on).