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Serguey Shilov

The Chronicle. Definitions of the Megascience
     Notes on fields of W. Heisenberg's 
"Physics and philosophy"
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1. Reflection of physics

          In his "Physics and philosophy" Heisenberg wrote: "The first language that emerges from the process 
of scientific clarification is in theoretical physics usually a mathematical language, the mathematical scheme, 
which allows one to predict the results of experiments. The physicists may be satisfied when he has the mathematical scheme and knows how to use it for the interpretation of the experiments.  
Can one speak about the atom itself? This is a problem of language as mach as of physics. But definitions 
can be given only with the help of other concepts,  and so one will finally have to rely on some concepts that 
are taken as they are,     unanalyzed and undefined.  
In theoretical physics we try to understand groups of phenomena by introducing mathematical symbols that 
can be correlated with facts, namely, with the results of measurements. For the symbols we use names that visualize their correlation with the measurement. Thus the symbols are attached to the language. Then the symbols are interconnected by a rigorous system of definitions and axioms, and finally the natural laws are expressed as equations between the symbols. The infinite variety of solutions of these equations then corresponds to the infinite variety of particular phenomena that are possible in this part of nature. Still, in process of expansion of scientific knowledge the language also expands; new terms are introduced and the 
old ones are applied in a wider field or differently from ordinary language. Terms such as "energy", 
"electricity", "entropy" are obvious examples. In this way we develop a scientific language which may be 
called a natural extension of ordinary language adapted to the added fields of scientific knowledge.  
The only thing we know from the start is the fact that our common concepts cannot be applied to the 
structure of the  atoms. But the problems of language here are really serious. We wish to speak in some 
way about the structure of the atoms and not only about the "facts". But we cannot speak about the atoms in ordinary language. One may say that the concept of complementarity introduced by Bohr into the interpretation of quantum theory has encouraged the physicists to use an ambiguous rather than an 
unambiguous language, to use the classical concepts in a somewhat vague manner in conformity with the principle of uncertainty, to apply alternatively different classical concepts which would lead to contradictions 
if used simultaneously. In this way one speaks about electronic orbits, about matter waves and charge 
density, about energy and momentum, etc., always conscious of the fact that these concepts have only a 
very limited range of applicability." (End of quotation.) (W. Heisenberg. Physics and philosophy. The 
revolution in modern science. New York. Harper and brothers publishers.) 

It is possible to consider physical knowledge today as finally developed. The physical foundations of the mechanics, foundations of molecular physics and thermodynamics, electrodynamics, oscillatory and wave processes, quantum properties of radiation, elements of quantum optics and nuclear physics, elements of quantum statistics and quantum solid-state physics, foundations of physics of a nucleus and elementary 
particles, astrophysics, theory of entropy, - are the developed space of self-realization of fundamental 
intention of some primary knowledge called "physics". Our position consists in the following estimation of 
a present situation in physics: in all divisions of physics we deal with "direct" physical knowledge, with representation of physical processes in their direct form of realization, but in no way with revealing of the reasons, bases of the present processes. The modern physics is a set of the formally presented physical processes, while all physical knowledge is as such only "fixing", is an expression, "trade mark", physical 
process itself. To put it more certainly, in modern physics and in any of her "knowledge" and aspects we 
deal only with physical processes itself. In modern physics we do not deal with the foundations of physics. 
The problem of the foundations of physics is not on the agenda among physicists. This question is conceived 
by them as completely solved as the validity of representation of physical processes. Any "division" of 
modern physics is the presented physical process. It does contain anything else. Modern physics as a simple 
set of "divisions" of physics exists as "co-nsciousness" of absolutization of physical process itself. Such consciousness is embodied in language of physics. Certainly, this sort of language distinguishes his own 
concepts with the form of their representation, with their language form, but the limitation of this language as special does not allow to comprehend the foundations, the a priori form of the language of physics. The 
genuine foundations are something essentially different than physical representations as such which illustrate language of physics. Modern physics is constrained by fundamental restriction of thinking, such as 
interdiction of definitions of meanings an concepts used there, definitions from the point of view of the foundations of the language of physics. The modern physics permits itself to deal only with meanings as 
reality of the process itself. Definition of concepts, used in physics, certainly, is not a physical process, it 
can not compete with concrete researches in divisions of physics, by means of which the process of 
physical knowledge is opened as such. From physicist's point of view, definition of concepts, used in 
physics,

is sort of an excess in relation to the spontaneity of physical processes. From such point of view, concepts, used in physics, are determined as meanings in the structure of the representation of physical processes, and any other definition of the concepts has no serious relation to true essence of physical knowledge, unless to the theories of methodology and history of science having merely "bibliographic" 
meaning. However, here physicists miss such "elementary" property of knowledge as reflection. True, 
rational knowledge is the so-called "indirect knowledge", the knowledge of the reasons, foundations of 
"primary knowledge", i. e. self-opening of physical process to the researcher, self-opening which forms representation of physical process. The set of "divisions" of modern physics is a mass of primary knowledge stopped within its limits, the mass which is superfluous in relation to the fundamental problems of physics. Primary knowledge of the modern physics is more than enough for the solution of fundamental problems of physics, i. e. general field theory (gravics), problems of time, energy, theory of the universe. These 
fundamental problems are literally overshadowed by mass of primary knowledge. In divers divisions of 
physics all necessary formal work with physical process as such is already done. While comprehension of genesis and structure of physical processes as the science did not begin yet. It is supposed that the 
problematic of genesis and structure of physical processes is carried out in proper representation of the 
physical process in the physical and mathematical form. But we believe that problems of the genesis and structure of physical processes, on the one hand, and the foundations of language of physics, on another, constitute the same knowledge. Thus, the program of the reflection of physical knowledge consists in consecutive definition of "divisions" of physics. Such definition should be guided by "secondary" physical knowledge - by knowledge of concepts used in physics. Fundamental concept used in modern physics is 
the concept of time, but this notion has not been comprehend until now. The essence of concept of time in modern physics is reduced to its meaning, to variety of its meanings. The essence of problem of modern 
physics as a fundamental problem of the language of physics consists in the problem of reflection (which is traditional for language in general), in the problem of the gap between the sense and the meaning of 
concept of time; it resides in the gap between the concept of time as it is used in physics, i. e. remaining unrevealed, closed, on the one hand, and meaning, importance of time in physics, on the other. The 
program of the reflection of physical knowledge consists in physical and mathematical formalization of the concept of time which will give most powerful pulse to direct knowledge of modern physics, which 
express the importance of time, which will erect new quality of physical process as such, new quality of expressibility of the language of physics. The modern physical knowledge reflection program considers all 
set of divisions of modern physics as a "termino-logy" ("logic of term"). "Term" is understood here as the "determinant of time", that is fixation of time as physical process of the special sort, on the one hand, and disclosing of unique sense of physical process as the "phenomena of time", on the other. Speaking more 
clearly, for us "determinants of time" are opened as fundamental physical "terms" in the program of the 
reflection of physics - "speed", "acceleration", "pulse", "momentum", "energy", "thermal movement ", 
"activity", "fluctuation", "electrical field", "electric charge", "electric current", "dielectric", "semi-conductor", "plasma", "magnetic field", "atom", "induction", "oscillations", "wave", "radiation of heat", "photon", "radio-activity", "fundamental interactions of elementary particles". Thus, the program of the reflection of 
physical knowledge re-defines physical concept of time. Time as measurement of physical process reveals 
itself by means of reflection as an unique and fundamental essence, reason, basis, genesis and structure of that physical process. The universal physical process reveals itself as direct process of time. Time occurs not as atomic clock shows that (I speak only about meaning of time), the time in itself occurs as "speed", 
"acceleration", "pulse", "momentum", "energy", " thermal movement", "activity", "fluctuation", "electrical 
field", "electric charge", "electric current", "dielectric", "semi-conductor", "plasma", "magnetic field", "atom", "induction", "oscillations", "wave", "radiation of heat", "photon", "radio-activity", "fundamental interactions of elementary particles". Time in its spontaneity as a fundamental reality of physics reveals itself by all its 
structure in the development of physics and that coming-to-be as "speed", "acceleration", "pulse", 
"momentum", "energy", "thermal movement", "activity", "fluctuation", "electrical field", "electric charge", 
"electric current", "dielectric", "semi-conductor", "plasma", "magnetic field", "atom", "induction", 
"oscillations", "wave", "radiation of heat", "photon", "radio-activity", "fundamental interactions of elementary particles". Time is exactly the "matter" of physical processes. The modern physics in each of its "divisions" 
deals with time; the concrete knowledge of each division of modern physics is a certain formalization of time, 
is the essence of representation of any physical process. The program of the reflection of modern physics consists in definition of the matter of physical processes as time, when the result of the reflection of modern physics becomes a megascience revealing self-definitions of time. 
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