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Serguey Shilov

The Chronicle. Definitions of the Megascience
     Notes on fields of W. Heisenberg's 
"Physics and philosophy"
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2. Searching the true laws of thermodynamics.
Definition of time as "temperature of atom"

Heisenberg wrote: "This use of the language is in many ways quite satisfactory, since it reminds us of a similar use of the language in daily life or in poetry. We realize that the situation of complementarity is not confined to the atomic world alone; we meet it when we reflect about a decision and the motives for our decision or when we have the choice between enjoying music and analyzing its structure. On the other hand, when the classical concepts are used in this manner, they always retain a certain vagueness, they acquire in their relation to 
"reality" only the same statistical significance as the concepts of classical     thermodynamics in its statistical interpretations. Therefore, a short discussion of these statistical concepts of thermodynamics may be useful. 
The concept "temperature" in classical thermodynamics seems to describe an objective feature of reality, an objective property of matter. In daily life it is quite easy to define with the help of a thermometer what we 
mean by stating that a piece of matter has a certain temperature. But when we try to define what the 
temperature of an atom could mean we are, even in classical physics, in a much  more difficult position. 
Actually we cannot correlate this concept "temperature of  the atom" with a well-defined property of the 
atom but have to connect it at least partly with our insufficient knowledge of it. We can correlate the value 
of the temperature with certain statistical expectations about the properties of the atom, but it seems rather doubtful whether an expectation should be called objective. The concept "temperature of the atom" is 
not much better than the concept "mixing" in the story about the boy who bought mixed sweets. 
In a similar way in quantum theory all the classical concepts are, when applied to the atom, just as well and 
just as little defined as the "temperature of the atom"; they are correlated with statistical expectations; only in 
rare cases may the expectation become the equivalent of certainty. Again, as in classical thermodynamics, 
it is difficult to call the expectation objective. One might perhaps call it an objective tendency or possibility, 
a "potentia" in the sense of Aristotelian philosophy. In fact, I believe that the language actually used by 
physicists when they speak about atomic events produces in their minds similar notions as the concept "potentia." So the physicists have gradually become accustomed to considering the electronic orbits, etc., 
not as reality but rather as a kind of "potentia." The language has already adjusted itself, at least to some 
extent, to this true situation. But it is not a precise language in which one could use the logical patterns; it is 
a language that produces pictures in our mind, but together with them the notion that the pictures have only 
a vague connection with reality, that they represent only a tendency toward reality.  
The vagueness of this language in use among the physicists has therefore led to  attempts to define a 
different precise language which follows definite logical patterns in complete conformity with the 
mathematical scheme of quantum theory.  
This concept of "state" would then form a first definition concerning the ontology of quantum theory. One 
sees at once that this use of the word "state", especially the term "coexistent state", is so different from the 
usual materialistic ontology that one may doubt whether one is using a convenient terminology. On the other hand, if one considers the word "state" as describing some potentiality rather than a reality - one may even simply replace the term "state" by the term "potentiality" - then the concept of "coexistent potentialities" is 
quite plausible, since one potentiality may involve or overlap other potentialities.  
In the experiments about atomic events we have to do with things and facts, with phenomena that are just 
as real as any phenomena in daily life. But the atoms or the elementary particles themselves are not as real; 
they form a world of     potentialities or possibilities rather than one of things or facts. " (End of quotation.) 

The modern physicists reason in the following way: "Before thermodynamics was created the "concept" of 
time was absent in the classical physics in the way, in what it is considered in real life and in sciences 
studying processes, proceeding in time and having the history. Though time as variable quantity is including 
in all equations of the classical and quantum mechanics, nevertheless it does not reflect internal changes 
which occur in the system. For this very reason in the equations of physics mathematical character of time 
can be changed for its opposite, i.e. date it with the future as well as the past. The situation has 
considerably changed after physicist have closely engaged themselves in the study of thermal processes, 
the laws of which were formulated in classical thermodynamics. If former dynamics have described 
movements of bodies under the influence of external forces, deliberately declining from internal changes occurring in mechanical systems, the thermodynamics was compelled to investigate physical processes at 
various transformations of a thermal energy". This reasoning is extremely significant and it is enough to 
confine to serious reflection of such "concepts" to reveal a direction of "chronologization" of modern physics. Actually, the thermodynamics has only revealed limitation of "primary" physical knowledge and has 
preserved this limitation in these postulates. The fact that the direction of time is not taken into account in 
the classical and quantum mechanics (in spite of stochastic nature of the equations of last-named) is just the ultimate achievement of physical knowledge. The time is parameter which character can be changed for the opposite. If the original coordinates, impulses and initial state of system are given, and the motion equations 
are known, then it is possible in the mechanics to determine any of its condition both in the future and in the 
past quite unequivocally.
The New mechanics, or Chronicle proceed from the following thesis: time is a reversible process for all 
systems. The reversibility of time for all systems - as a basic foundation of the Chronicle - is the fundamental postulate of the theory ofsystems. 
The physicists and after them all scientific community have overlooked that time is reversible for all systems 
and have not noticed that in the very possibility of the terminological structures, in constants of physical processes they collide simply with concrete fact of reversibility of time as such. The structure of modern 
physics, constructed on the irreversibility of time, functions only because it tacitly bases on area, rejected 
by the researcher, on area in which not only the impossibility gets possible, but becomes the solely possible condition of appearance of possible physical processes. Appearance of possible physical processes is their existence in time, from time, for time. Certainly, as the development of the Chronicle progresses, the proper physical evidence of reversibility of time will be shortly produced for all (!) systems, but I assert that the 
basic evidence exist already today. Condition of modern physical knowledge as such is a stop to 
obviousness of reversibility of time to all systems and the obviousness is clearly shown in all divisions of 
modern physical knowledge. It is the terminological constructions of the divisions of physics and the 
presence of "nominal" constants of physical processes that are the concrete expression of the origin of 
physical process as a measure of the reversibility of time in the system. The modern physics has stopped 
before the knowledge of reel reversibility of time reliably fixed by it. The modern development of physical knowledge is carried out with the implicit precondition about reversibility of time which only makes possible scientific discoveries, development of new lines of investigations and engineering. All real successes of 
modern

physics actually prove the basic postulate of the Chronicle about reversibility of time for all systems. However, physical consciousness (or self-consciousness) itself, remains in captivity of archaic ideas, is 
unable to conceive decisive interpretation and reflection of its own practical progress and this is what 
hinders the transition to a new level of scientific practice and engineering. 
The thermodynamics which is a stronghold of idea of irreversibility of time should be investigated in 
completely other quality - as phenomenology of the modern physics based on four principles of 
irreversibility of time. The criticism of the modern physics aiming at its progress towards the chronicle presupposes primary criticism of thermodynamics based on the program of a reflection of modern 
physical knowledge. 
The program of the reflection of physics does not deny the validity of divisions and theses of modern 
physics - which have sometimes been defined in a sublime manner as the laws (more often as "nominal l 
aws") - it only limits their validity to the frameworks of these divisions, showing time as real area of the 
validity of physics, upon which implicitly, tacitly all the divisions of physics base. Here we arrive at the most critical moment of our research. The unbiassed researcher, having agreed with the reasons of the author 
about the necessity of reflection of physical knowledge and revealing its structure, being under the power 
of authority of the modern physics will most likely try to put these reasons down to some interesting ideas 
in the field of development of methodology of science, modern conceptions of natural sciences, but in no 
case to basic foundations of the Megascience. I have to emphasize once again, that the present research is exploring the universal structure of the validity of the physics, is disclosing its basic foundations in language 
and terminology of physics. 
The chronicle gives the proper physical answer to the question what time is, what the time of physics is. 
This answer is overlooked in modern physics and the present emptiness is filled by the pseudo-scientific concepts of space-time and other "terminological vapour". Physics should identify itself what concept of 
time functions in it, what kind of reality of time it has learnt, what kind of reality of timeit uses being unable 
to express it. "The Quantum-mechanical ontology" purged from a hypothesis of atomism uncovers to us a pre-mathematical essence of time as the essence of physics. 
The "Zero"- principles of the Chronicle uncovers a physical reality of time. " The time is heat. The heat is 
time". The mechanical time is a quantity of heat. The heat is a mechanical equivalent of time. A true physical essence (operation of time) is a modification of an internal energy at heat-exchange. 
Actual measuring instrument of physical time is the thermometer. To measure physical time means to 
measure temperature, ?. 
The first principle of the Chronicle restricts an operation of conservation of energy to space and describes 
the actual time mechanics. The first principle of the Chronicle (law of chronodynamics) reveals time as "perpetuum mobile of the first sort", i. e. as a device, universal process, which is capable to make an 
unlimited quantity of operations without the expenditure of fuel or any other materials. Time has at his 
disposal an unlimited energy content. Time is the form of existence of an unlimited energy content, is a 
concrete existing infinity of energy. The second principle of the Chronicle (law of chronostatics) uncovers 
time as a "perpetuum mobile of the second sort". 
The time as a state is a process the sole outcome of which is the withdrawal of heat from the reservoir. The 
state of time is process the sole outcome of which is the transmutation of heat into work at a constant temperature. To use the proper physical image, it is possible to tell that a state of time is a spontaneous 
transfer of heat from a cold body to a hot one. The action of Time Machine is based on the Second 
principle of Chronicle. Time Machine is an actual structure of nature, without which the existence of space 
as the scope of conservation of energy would be impossible. The work of time is transfer of heat from a 
colder system to a hotter one in the absence of other simultaneous modifications in systems or in 
circumjacent bodies. 
The Third principle of the Chronicle states the possibility of cooling of substance down to an absolute zero temperature and defines such state of substance as fundamental state, uncovering temporal nature of sub 
stance. Accordingly, the central concept of thermodynamics - entropy - is also exposed to new 
comprehension in the Chronicle. The entropy of the actual "closed" system, i. e. chronosystem, constantly decreases. The chronosystems evolve towards order and organization increase, until the run up to the point 
of a chronodynamic equilibrium, in which they do not differ from time as such, in which they are time. 
Initially the thermodynamics has introduced in physics the concept of time as an irreversible process of 
entropy increase in the system. But in fact thermodynamics expressed the meaning of time as reality which 
forms structures of physical processes. The final act of the reflection of modern physical knowledge is the correlation of definition of time and that of heat, "the inseparability of the Boundless and the Limit" as was 
told by Plato. The chronicle allows to consider not the specified physics' objects taken separately (or taken 
in rational - speculative correlation which weakens practical possibility), but rather the chronosystems 
unified in chronological sense and subordinated to the laws of the chronicle; the chronosystems which exist (presented) by their moments, attributes and realities in space according to modern physics. 
Any system is a chronosystem. All systems of modern physics, biological systems, astrophysical systems, civilization system are a chronosystem. All real systems are characterized by the negentropy. The entropy 
of the Universe constantly decreases. The chronodynamic equilibrium corresponds to the minimum of 
entropy. Ideas of the chronicle have been implicitly contained in fundamental theoretical and applied 
discoveries of the physics which, in fact, consist in disclosing of "unconceivable per se" phenomena and principles, embodying in the acceptable to scientific community form the problematic of the chronicle. This circumstance has lead a number of outstanding investigators of history and methodology of science to the 
idea of a certain discovery theory, inasmuch as the presence of particular formal logic in scientific 
knowledge generation was obvious. The actual physical knowledge and engineering achievements have 
so far been subjected to reflection only in their self-maintained value as such, they have not been interpreted 
as knowledge of the fundamental decrees of a nature which, undoubtedly, are "grasped" in this knowledge. 
The fundamental laws of modern physics ?onform rather to the rules of escalating and organization of 
physical knowledge and are in a fundamental inconsistency with the real laws of the Universe. The 
Megascience as Chronicle arises at the point of an absolute contradictoriness of a modern physics, at the 
point of complete neglect of the elaboration of physics foundation, against the background of powerful intellectual development of "divisions" of physics, against the background of powerful technical possibilities 
of the physics. What has needed to create the Chronicle is the comprehension of modes of the realization 
of modern physical thinking, detection of the black-out physical knowledge, which are in fact (though 
implicitly) used by the investigators and pioneers in "manufacture" of physical knowledge and 
discoveries.- That physical knowledge which to ? great extent is explicit and confirmed for the researchers. 
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